Pre-Solo Air Law

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What are the main specific limitations imposed upon the holder of a student pilot licence?

He shall not pilot an aeroplane:

(a)   Carrying any person other than a rated flight instructor

(b)   Under instrument meteorological conditions

(c)    Solely by reference to instruments unless accompanied by a rated flight instructor

(d)   At night

He shall not pilot an aeroplane solo:

(a)   Until the student pilot is deemed competent, and authorised to do so by a suitably qualified flight instructor

(b)   Except:

(i)     Within the traffic pattern

(ii)   Within 10 miles of the reference point of the aerodrome from which he is receiving flying training; or

(iii) Within the confines of a flying training area which is associated with the aerodrome from which he is receiving flying training; or

(iv)  When flying between (i) and (ii) by the most direct route

(c)    For more than three consecutive hours of solo flight time, or, after an elapsed period of thirty days without a flight, unless he has passed a flight test with a rated flight instructor

(d)   For more than fifteen consecutive hours of solo flight time, or after an elapsed period of ninety days without a flight, after he has passed a flight test with a rated instructor

When may a student exercise the privileges of a student licence?

Except with the permission of CASA, the holder of a flight crew licence must not perform a duty authorised by the licence unless the person holds a current medical certificate that is appropriate to the licence.

What is the minimum height at which an aircraft is permitted to fly:

(a) Over any city, town or populous area

Such height as would be necessary to glide clear of the build up area in the event of engine failure, but in any case not less than 1000ft with the following exceptions:

  • Stress of weather
  • Taking off or landing at an aerodrome

(b) Over any other area

500ft with the following exceptions:

  • Stress of weather
  • Taking off or landing at an aerodrome
  • Over an area designated by the Secretary as a low flying area

When two aircraft are at approximately the same altitude and on converging headings, which aircraft shall give way?

The aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way. In avoiding the other aircraft, it should not pass over or under it, and not in front unless well clear.

When two aircraft are approaching head on or approximately so, and there is danger of collision, which shall give way?

Each aircraft shall alter its heading to the right.

One aircraft is on final approach to land, another is prepared to take off. Which aircraft has the right of way?

The aircraft on final approach.

What are the minimum Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) in which flight in accordance with the Visual Flight Rules (VFR) may be conducted:

(a) Below 3000ft AMSL?

5000m flight visibility and the aircraft must be clear of cloud.

(b) At or above 3000ft AMSL?

5000m flight visibility and the aircraft must be 1500m horizontally and 1000ft vertically from cloud.

If the aircraft is at or above 3000ft AMSL but 1000ft AGL or less it must remain clear of cloud with 5000m visibility.

What is the meaning of the following ground signals?

(a) Horizontally white dumb-bell displayed adjacent to primary wind direction indicator?

Use hard surfaced runways, taxiways and aprons only.

(b) White cross displayed:

(i) Adjacent to primary wind direction indicator?

Aerodrome completely unserviceable.

(ii) On manoeuvring area?

An area marked by a cross or crosses with the limits delinated by markers is unfit for use by aircraft.

(c) White double cross displayed adjacent to primary wind direction indicator?

Gliding operations in progress.

What is the meaning of the following light signals directed to the pilot of an aircraft in flight and on the ground:

Signal Meaning in Flight Meaning on Aerodrome
Steady green Authorized to land if pilot satisfied no collision risk exists Authorized to take off if pilot satisfied no collision risk exists
Steady red Give way to other aircraft and continue circling Stop
Green flashes Return for landing Authorized to taxi if pilot satisfied no collision risk exists
Red flashes Aerodrome unsafe – do not land Taxi clear of landing area in use
White flashes No significance Return to starting point on aerodrome

Who is responsible for maintaining separation from other aircraft on VFR flights in a control zone?

The pilot.

How are unserviceable sections of a movement area marked?

By white cross markers on the affected area, with the limits of such areas outlined by white cone markers.

What is meant by QNH altimeter setting?

The atmospheric pressure corresponding to mean sea level pressure at a particular place and time. An altimeter with this QNH set on its sub scale will indicate its altitude above mean sea level at that place. If the aircraft is on the ground at an aerodrome the altimeter will indicate the elevation of that aerodrome above mean sea level.

What is Area QNH altimeter setting?

A forecast altimeter setting which is representative (i.e. +/- 5mbs) of the QNH within a particular area.

What is the minimum fuel which must be carried on a private VFR flight? Whose responsibility is it to ensure that this minimum amount of fuel is carried?

Sufficient for the intended flight plus 45 minutes reserve. It is the responsibility of the pilot in command.

Where the owner, the operator or a flight crew member of an Australian aircraft either becomes aware of the existence of a defect in the aircraft, or becomes aware that the aircraft has suffered damaged that in the opinion of the owner, the operator or the flight crew member is major damage, some administrative action must be taken. What is this administrative action?

The details of either the defect or the damage, as the case may be, are to be entered on the maintenance release or other document approved for use as an alternative to the maintenance release.

What are the rules relating to the use of drugs and alcohol?

A person acting as a member of the operating crew of an aircraft, or carried in the aircraft for the purpose of so acting, shall not, while so acting or being carried, be in state in which by reason or his or her having consumed, or used, or absorbed any alcoholic liquor, drug, pharmaceutical or medicinal preparation or other substance, his or her capacity so to act is impaired.

What is the minimum period between alcohol consumption and flight departure?

A person shall not act, or perform any duties or functions preparatory to acting as, a member of the operating crew of an aircraft if the person has, during the period of 8 hours immediately preceding the departure of the aircraft, consumed any alcoholic liquor.

What is a NOTAM? How can a pilot find out if there are any NOTAMs which will affect a planned flight?

A NOTAM is a Notice to Airmen issued under the Air Navigation Act. It contains information or instruction concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to persons concerned with flight operations. NOTAMS are available at any ATC or FS unit and may be obtained by personal visit or by telephone.

How is a holding point marked?

By two parallel white lines across the taxiway or holding bay, one continuous and the other a series of spaced lines.

Where should a radio listening watch be established by a pilot who is departing from an aerodrome located within:

(a) A primary control zone?

(b) A General Aviation control zone?

(c) An AFIZ?

From the parking position before commencing to taxi.

Under what circumstances and subject to what conditions may a pilot use a runway or direction for take-off and landing which is different from that nominated by aerodrome control?

If the runway or direction to be used for take-off and landing does not have sufficient length of run or if the crosswind or downwind component is in excess of the maximum permissible for  his particular operation, or if for any other reason of safety he considers the nominated runway or direction unsuitable, he shall request a suitable alternative.

Define altitude?

The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level.

With the altimeter subscale set on QNH or area QNH, how should the following altimeter indications be expressed?

(a) 3000 feet

Three Thousand

(b) 1800 feet

One Thousand Eight Hundred

What is meant by QFE altimeter setting and when may this setting be used?

The atmospheric pressure at the level of an aerodrome reference point. An altimeter with this pressure set on its sub-scale will indicate its height above the level of that particular aerodrome reference point. QFE may be used when flying by visual reference to the ground within the traffic circuit of an aerodrome.

Under what conditions is aerobatic flight permitted?

(a)   Without risk of collision with other aircraft

(b)   In VMC by day

(c)    When the aircraft is certified as being airworthy for aerobatics

(d)   At a height of not less than 3000ft above terrain, except with the permission of the Secretary in writing

(e)   Not over a city, town, populous area, regatta, sports meeting or public gathering, except with the permission on the Secretary in writing

(f)     After ensuring that loose articles and dual controls are removed from the aircraft, locker and compartment doors are fastened, harness of any vacant seat is made secure and every person in the aircraft is securely strapped in

(g)   The pilot must be authorised or certified proficient to perform the manoeuvres

What is the minimum height at which the PIC may alter heading from the take-off heading?

500ft above terrain unless ATC directs the alteration or unless the alteration is necessary due to terrain.

When is a right-hand turn after take-off permitted?

(a)   When the Secretary has so directed for the particular aerodrome

(b)   If ATC so directs, or

(c)    On reaching a height of 1500ft above, or a distance of 3 miles from a non-controlled aerodrome

What is the minimum distance from the perimeter of an aerodrome from which a straight approach to landing must be made?


Except when engaged in formation flying or when specifically authorised, what is the minimum distance which must be maintained between airborne aircraft?

600m horizontally and 500ft vertically.


One Response to Pre-Solo Air Law

  1. […] a lot. But, then again, I guess a lot can happen in 5 hours. I was given the study guide for the pre-solo air law test today, so I must be close enough to make that worthwhile (or I’m hoping so at least). I […]

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